May 25, 2006

Munshi Premchand Stories online in Hindi

At the blog Munshi Premchand ki Kahniyan, one can read the short stories of Munshi Premchand in Hindi online. (The visitors to the blog of Munshi Premchand are requested to read the post at To the Readers of Munshi Premchand. )

The author has not revealed his identity but he is probably a person by the name of Raman.

He has done a great job. I think, it is one example of its kind, wherein some Indian has tried to do some substantial work on internet in order to exploit the full potential of this medium and technology for the benefit of the language Hindi as well as the History of India. Munshi Premchand is the first writer who tried to talk about the common man in simple Hindi. His stories reflect the time of early twentieth century and also the struggle of Indians against the British Imperialistic rule.

I think the people who are maintaining the Digital Library of India may look at this work and learn what it actually means to creat a digital library. By giving a list of links to other libraries which have already done the job, is no substantial work. They should also check the last posting on Social Scientist.

I was just wondering about the hardword and technichal excellece of the author of the blog Munshi Premchand. It is very difficult to convert the Devnagri into UTF-8 and then post it on Whenever your posting is more than two or three pages, blogger takes time to upload it. Sometimes all your efforts go waste. However, this guy had achieved a hurculean task.

The people who are working on social history of 20th century India, will definitely find this source useful provided they know to read Hindi.

May 21, 2006

Social Scientist on Digital South Asia Library

Social Scientist is an important History Journal on Indian History. The digital form of the Social Scientist is available on Digital South Asia Library.

It is a chance finding. I have not found enough sources and authoritative writings on Indian history. The digital versions of the Journal are available from 1972 to 2001. It is a hurried posting and rest of the comments later.

May 14, 2006

Texas Secession Declaration

This Declaration was issued on February 2, 1861. Before it, South Carolina, Georgia and Mississippi had already made public their stand on the justifications and causes to secede from the United States of America.

The declaration of Texas remembered that how on December 29, 1845, Texas, from being an Independent country became part of the Confederated Union for “her welfare, domestic tranquility and thereby sought peace and liberty for her people.

The Texas declaration emphasized that when Texas joined the Union then that union was based on a pact which protected her right of property over the African slaves. It also reminded that they had common link on this issue with other Southern States. It presented the stand that by joining the United State of America, the ties with those states had further strengthened.

However, the declaration questioned the nature of the Federal government towards them since that day.

The declaration also pointed out that in its march towards Pacific Ocean, the Federal Government and non-slaving States had knowingly harmed Texas and “her sister slaveholding States.”

The declaration accused that the Federal government and the Non-Slave Holding States had encouraged crime against the South States. It accused that in Kansas territory, they had harmed the lives and property of the Southern people.

The declaration of Texas had also pointed out that in their fight against the Indians, the Federal Government had not played the positive role. The government had also not protected them against the attacks from Mexico.

The declaration sepcifically identify that the states of Maine, Vermong, New Hamshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New York, Pannsylvania, Ohio, Wisconsin, Michigan and Iowa had breached the Clause 4 of the Federal Constitution and thereby breach the compact signed between Texas and the Federal Government in December 1845.

The declaration also emphasised the breach of the “good faith and comity” on the part of the North States. The declaration also expressed the fear of the actual agenda based on “the doctrine at war with nature” of the Sectional Party which was going to take over the reigns of the government in the month of March 1861.

The declaration also accused that the discord had been sowed by the sectional party which was going to take over the power whereas the south states had been showing great restraint all through four decades.

The declaration also accused the North States, their sectional party and the Federal Government for making direct attack on the institutions of South, security and peace of the South, property of south and lives of the south people. It also pointed out that they were encouraging and promoting all such organizations which were indulging in harming the South States. For that, the declaration had counted seventeen such States which could be charged with such anti-national activity. Their policy was declared as non-Christian in nature.

Texas’s declaration identified that with them and by that time, six states had separated themselves from the United States of America and the Texas was the seventh one. Thus, the declaration placed before the world the causes and justifications for secession. The Declaration was issued on February 2. 1861 and Ordinance of Secession was issued on February 1, 1861 a day before.

Summary Observation:

The Texas was the youngest State to secede from the Union. The tone, diction, argument and sharpness of the declaration had similarity with the declaration of South Carolina and Mississippi.

Texas identified as the breach of the compact on account of Article 4 of the Federal Constitution as the cause of secession.

Texas also complained that the Federal government was favouring the North States in the march of the nation towards west.

Texas complaint that Federal government did not adopt any policy against the dangers and expenses of South states while dealing with Indians and the attacks from Mexico.

Texas also feared the future course of the destiny of the nation under the Sectional Party under Lincoln and Johnson.

Texas complained that it had suffered in life and property after having joined their fate with United States of America.


American Civil War Homepage
Justifications and Causes for Secession on Eve of Civil War Through online Sources
Georgia Declaration of Causes of Secession
Mississippi Secession
Texas State Library and Archives Commission
A similar comment by Walter L. Buenger at Texas State Historical Association

May 13, 2006

Mississippi Secession

The reasons given by Mississippi declaration of the causes of the secession from the union reads like a list of points given to a question.

Mississippi declaration clearly states that the state was seceding only because of the issue of slavery. The declaration had explained the institution of slavery as vital for the material well being of the state. The rest of the declaration reads like a list of the arguments given as the causes of secession.

The declaration emphasized that the attack on the institution of slavery had started since 1787. It was practically executed in case of Louisiana territory, Texas and Mexico.

By denying the right of the South over their slaves as their property, the Union had breached the compact and it was the main argument of the declaration.

The declaration also pointed that the North states had used their institutions like press, schools, public to raise insurrection in South State.

The North states had promoted such associations which had only one aim of ending the institution of slavery and thereby destroy the South.

Finally, the declaration accused that they had given over the government to such a group that had only one agenda and that was to destroy the South completely.

Summary Observations:

Mississippi declaration was short and categorically stated that they were separating from the Union because the new government had the plan to end the slavery.

They had also equated the separation to the act of separation of colonies from the Crown of England. This argument was also used in South Carolina declaration of separation.

They had also called the attack on the institution of slavery as a breach of contract. This was the argument which was also adopted by the South Carolina declaration of secession.

A peculiar feature is that there is no reference in the body of the declaration itself about the date when it was issued. In case of the South Carolina, Texas, and Georgia, the dates are emphasized but there is no such reference. However, The Ordinance of Secession was issued on January 9, 1861. It was the second state to pass the resolution to secede from the Union after South Carolina had executed the process of secession on December 20, 1860.

May 12, 2006

Georgia Declaration of Causes of the Secession

Georgia placed before the world the reasons to secede from the United States of America on January 29, 1861.

The declaration placed on record two categorical statements. The first statement declared that they serious and numerous complain against their non slave holding confederate States with reference to the subject of African slavery. In the second statement they stated that "they (non-slave-holding States)have endeavoured to weaken our security, to disturb our domestic peace and tranquility, and persistently refused to comply with their express constitutional obligations to us in reference to that property, and by the use of their power in the Federal government have striven to deprive us of an equal enjoyment of the common territories of the Republic.

The declaration emphasized that they had put for long with the insults, injuries and dangers perpetrated by the North States on the South state because they had regard for their national sentiments. It also emphasized that they had persuaded them to desist from continuing such activities. They had also told clearly that a sectional party (Republican Party) should not be entrusted with the government of the country. The resolution accused that the Republic party which had been called as Lincoln party by the resolution was a party of exploded political heresies, of condemned theories in political economy, and advocate to commercial restrictions, of protection, of special privileges, of waste and corruption in administration of government and anti-slavery was its only mission.

The declaration tried to remind that the question of slavery was taken care of during the very inception of the constitution. The acceptance of the constitution was invariably related to recognizing slavery within the body of the constitution. After that was settled, the constitution worked for the benefit of the whole nation for nearly a half century and never was that question brought to realm of contentious issue during that period.

The declaration emphasized that since the inception of the constitution, it was the North which had been receiving undue protection for its material growth. The nation had conceded to their demands for special protection at the expense of the agricultural interests of the rest of nation. The navigating, commercial and manufacturing interests of North had been allowed to seek special privileges. It was the treasury of the Federal government which had been paying for material benefit of the North states at the expense of overall benefit of the whole nation. The beneficiaries of accommodating Federal government was Eastern and Middle non-slave-holding states. The Federal government had condescended to their demands because their economic activities were in its infancy, there was scarcity of labour and capital, the other countries were hostile to them, they had provided material goods during the time of war and need money to pay their debts which they had incurred during the war of independence. Therefore, they were being compensated during that period.

The declaration observed that by 1846, the special privileges doled out to them were withdrawn after the debate in which the whole nation participated. As per the basic spirit and nature of the American nation, the special privileges were then stopped to them. It was replaced by the principle of free trade, low duties and economy in public expenditure. The change was smooth and it worked well for the benefit of the whole nation.

However, after that, a section took up of the issue of anti-slavery only to regain the earlier benefits. They tried to revive the anti-slavery sentiment of the North. The section got the chance when Mexico was acquired. The resolution reminded that Mexico was acquired with blood and money of South. However, when the North tried to use Congressional Legislation to curb the slavery in that region, the South met with great moderation though it was an insult to them.

The declaration also reminded that through the ordinance of 1787, the right over property of South was secured by the constitution. It also recorded that Virginia had parted with her territory only when it was given constitutional guarantee that South would be allowed to retain their property right over slaves. Before Missouri compromise, the North States again tried to damage their property right over slaves. By 1852, the anti-slavery group lost all their political significance. It was then, the Lincoln party again organized itself. In 1860, the Lincoln party had won the election by exploiting the antislavery sentiment and it was unacceptable to Georgia.

It was lamented in the declaration, that constitutional had secured their property, the Supreme Court had passed judgements in favour of that right, the nation had debated the issue for forty years and given verdict in favour of equal enjoyment of their property right but in 1860, the North Sates were about to deny that right. Not only that, the North States had also tried to raise rebellion in South states. They had tried to destroy the peace of the South States and the Federal government had failed to secure them peace and justice.

Finally the deceleration placed on the record that why they were not ready to accept the government in the hands of the Republic party. Giving the reason, the placed on record that because by their declared principles and policy they have outlawed $3000000000 of our property in the common territories of the Union; put it under the bad of the Republic in the States where it exists and out of the protection of Federal law everywhere; because they give sanctuary to thieves and incendiaries who assail it to the whole extent of their power, in site of their most solemn obligations and covenants; because their avowed porpoise is to subvert our society and subject us not only to the loss of our property but the destruction of ourselves, our wives, and our children, and the desolation of our homes, our altars and our fireside.

Summary Observations:
  • The Georgia declared that "they (non-slave-holding States) have endeavoured to weaken our security, to disturb our domestic peace and tranquility, and persistently refused to comply with their express constitutional obligations to us in reference to that property, and by the use of their power in the Federal government have striven to deprive us of an equal enjoyment of the common territories of the Republic."

  • The North States had unduly used the Federal Treasury during the earlier years of the Union for the material benefit. It was allowed then because, South was not dependent on the Federal support for its material progress whereas it was needed by North. However, that material support was ended by 1846.

  • The North States harmed their material gains when it forced the South to adopt the Missouri Compromise and again when Mexico was taken over.

  • A group of wrong political notions, had tried to exploit dormant sentiment of North state only for gaining the political power. North wanted to regain the material support of the treasury and harm the South by denying it freedom to use the constitutional right, it had allowed that political group, then known as Republican Party.

The South States had been suffering insult and harm to them for long. Therefore, when Republican party, which had made anti-slavery an issue only to gain power, Georgia had separated itself to regain liberty, equality, security and tranquility.

May 08, 2006

Our Documents by NARA: Online Source to form a more perfect Union An USA Department Initiative

A discussion had started on H-TAH list. The question was placed by Paul Leslie of Nicholls State University.

The responses were quite fruitful. The query was to "list fifteen documents/speeches that reflected America's past over the last 306 years". Gary Daynes and Debra Schneider directed the attention to Our Documents.

On the site one can find 100 such documents starting from Lee Resolution (1776) to Voting Rights Act (1965).

Daynes finds the list idiosyncratic (?!!) but simultaneously refer to the discussion by NARA (National Archives and Records Administration – USA) on the issue of selecting or excluding of the documents.

Schneider of Merrill F. West High School, Tracy, California has pointed out that this list is there for the last two years.

I quote from the site about its aim.

"We invite all Americans to participate in a series of events and programmes to us thinking, talking and teaching about the rights and responsibilities of citizens in our democracy. At the heart of this initiative are 100 milestone documents of American history."

It is desired there that students, teachers, parents, and the general public direct attention to them in order to form a "more perfect union"(Is it a reference to Civil War?).

As a teacher, I am delighted to learn about this. I hope that it is going to remain there for long.

Apart from the motive, it is exhilarating and amazing to find such a thing on the web. I have been talking about the need of online sources and using for technology for the Human resource development along with other like minded people and teachers. Here I am finding a case which shows the way that it can be achieved through such a model. I am presently also working on an article on misuse of Mobile Phones for cheating, memory sticks and pen scanners for cheating in AIIMS Exams, using sms for solving IIT entrance exams. Everyone say that the student should be penalized and all such devices should be banned. On the other hand, it is desired under ICT project to use the new technologies to promote research, human resource development and fruitful interaction. Then, there are sting operations, hidden cameras and like activities to contain corruption but it is raising the issue of privilege of privacy. The same devices are being used to film immoral activities. One is just at loss to understand that what actually we are going to make out of these technologies. But here is an answer. May the Bhartiyas (Indians with capital at New Delhi) look at it !!

As a teacher I am amazed, happy and highly enthusiastic on finding this source. I read the Article of Confederation and Constitution of America especially Article 4 which had been identified in the Secession Resolution of South Carolina on December 24, 1860 in order to declare that there was a breach of compact. Now, I have the source to read and counter check all the references to all such historic documents in original. In case of India, one can find the Parliamentary debates since 1946 at India Image. However, it requires lot of skills to locate them. I always reached by fluke to the desired documents not knowing how to reach a same document again and again. The ICT projects of UGC have not directed their attention to similar type of public responsive initiative by the archives. The National Archive of India has placed the web site but with the hope to decide upon the model on which they are going to make the documents available to the general public. It is left to all those resourceful people to acquire money to reach there but people like me, who do not like any binding while working would never get there. The Digital Library of India is ready but one does not know when they will bring documents in different languages online apart from the Telegu documents.

Well, this is something good. It is yet another important and useful Online Source for teachers and research scholars regardless of the aim of the site with which they have envisaged this model. Let us hope they maintain it there for long.

May 06, 2006

Justifications and Causes for Secession on Eve of Civil War Through online Sources

The Convention of the delegates of South Carolina met at Columbia. It then shifted to Charleston. On December 20, 1860, by an ordinance, it dissolved the union between the state of South Carolina and other States united with her under the compact entitled "The Constitution of the United States of America." (Reference: University of Tennesse Sunsite )

The same convention on December 24, 1860 dissolved its union between South Carolina and other States of North America and simultaneously by words, declared it self as a nation among the nations of the world. The resolution to this effect was titled "Declaration of the Immediate Causes which induce and justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union".

The following observations can be made on the contents of the resolution of December 24, 1860 which gave the justification and causes of the secession.

The Convention of delegates of South Carolina mentioned to her resolution of April 26, 1852 in beginning of the resolution.

It pointed out that therein, the Convention of South Carolina had observed that there was "frequent violations of the Constitution of the United States, by the Federal government." Through those violations, the resolution of the South Carolina observed, that the Federal Government had made "encroachments upon the reserved rights of the States". It also emphasized that it was in the year 1852 itself, that the convention of the South Carolina had worked and thought on the line of secession from the union because of the violations of the Constitution of the United States by the Federal Government.

The convention of South Carolina observed with great concern that they had been showing the virtue of great forbearance but in face of frequent violations of the Constitution of Unites States America, the virtue had lost its appeal when faced with such breach of trust.

With the above mentioned forces at work, the convention of South Carolina declared that it had resumed her separate and equal place among the nations.

With that reality to live, the convention of South Carolina continued in the resolution to give words to the causes and elucidate the justifications in order to emphasize the causes that have led to that act.

The resolution first gave the justification of attaining the status of an independent state among the community of the independent nations. It emphasized that on July 4, 1776, when the thirteen colonies started the American resolutions, they stood as "free and Independent States" and they fought against the British rule with that status. Referring to that event, the resolution emphasized that the urge to undertake the revolution was guided by the basic principle which was, that when a "government becomes destructive of the ends for which it was established, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new government. It was under this principle, that the colonies at that time had broken their links with the British Empire.

It tried to remember in the resolution itself that it was for the security of the states on collective level that the independent states had come under the a league by writing the Articles of Confederation and the Congress of the United States had come into existence. The war was fought by that Congress and that Congress did not retain any power which was not entrusted to it and those powers remained with the states which had come together under that Congress.

On the basis of the above arguments, the South Carolina emphasized that at that time two principles were fully accepted and practiced. The first principle was that the state had the right of self government. It was first the constitution of the states, which came into existence and the constitution of the United States had come on a later date and rectified by the states working under their own constitution at that time. The second principle that was the cause of the birth of the new independent free and self governing states was that the people of the state had the right to abolish the government which becomes destructive of the ends of which it was instituted.

It emphatically pointed out that it was in 1787 that the states sent her deputies to revise the Articles of Confederation and the existing constitution of America came into existence only then.

The secession resolution of South Carolina had pointed out that the constitution which South Carolina accepted on May 23, 1788, was in nature a compact between the states. The South Carolina had joined the compact along with eight other states. Later two more states accepted the constitution. It was after along time that rest of the two states joined in.

The acceptance of the constitution equated to a compact in which the residual powers were with the states. These states had come into existence by a Declaration of Independence granting them the status of a sovereign state. It was so recognized by Great Britain on September 3, 1783.

The main argument which ran through the resolution was that the states were free and sovereign which was granted to them by the Declaration of Independence. Further, that any form of government when becomes destructive of the ends for which it was established, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it and to institute a new government.

Thirdly that the acceptance of constitution by the state was similar to the compact wherein the residual powers remained safe with the constituent state.

The South Carolina convention of December 1860 evaluated the acceptance of constitution of America by South Carolina a compact. The convention also averred in the resolution that the performance of the material part of a compact is responsibility of each party that had joined in the compact. Any breach by any one party release the other party form the obligation of honouring the terms of the compact and thereby release the other party to exercise its own judgement to determine the fact of failure with all its consequences.

With the above rationale, the South Carolina convention declared that the federal government had breached the pact and pointed out by name fourteen such states which committed the breach.

The South Carolina convention asserted that the breach had taken place in respect of the fourth Article of the constitution of America. The fourth Article stipulated that "No person held to service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall in consequence of any or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up, on claim of th party to whom such service or labour may be due."

The convention also placed on the record that Virginia joined the United States or in other words accepted the constitution when the article four was enshrined in the constitution. The convention also emphasized that it was the obligation of ‘General Government’ (Federal Government) as the common agent of the parties who had joined the compact to ensure the performance of the material part of the article. The Convention named the fourteen States that violated the spirit of the article four. The convention also accused the General Government of her failure to perform the material part of the article 4 in the role of a common agent.

The states which were accused of breaching were Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa. The convention finally asserted that "the constituted compact has been deliberately broken and disregarded by the non-slaveholding States, and the consequence follows that South Carolina is released from her obligation."

The Convention accused that the fourteen non-slaveholder states had openly went against the article 4 of the Federal Government. The resolution gave specific case in case of some of them.

The convention also observed with great concern that by their acts, the fourteen non-slaveholding North States had tried to damage some of the established institutions of South States. They were encouraging open insurrection against Slave Holding South States.

On the basis of above accusations, the resolution incorporated the conclusion that, "the constituted compacts has been deliberately broken and disregarded by the Non-Slave Holding States, and the consequences follows that South Carolina is released from her obligation."

The Convention observed that Federal Government also failed to maintain the spirit of the compact on another front. According to South Carolina, that it was the basic goal of the constitution that through its material operation, it would "form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for common defence, promote general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity."

The Convention observed that the Federal Government had failed in that goal which was enshrined in the constitution. It expressed its disapproval by putting it on records that "we affirm that these ends for which this Government was instituted have been defeated, and the Government itself has been made destructive of them by action of the non Slaveholding States."

The resolution observed that the section of North State were "deciding upon the propriety of our (their) domestic institutions," ‘denied the rights of property established in fifteen of the States’ that had been otherwise recognized by the constitution. The delegates of the convention observed that the North States had termed some of their established institutions which were recognised by the constitution, as sinful. They were destroying the institutions of South States by encouraging insurrection, by sending emissaries and by using books and pictures.

The Convention observed that the North States were knowingly denying their constitutional rights, destroying their established and recognized institutions and calling their institutions sinful for 25 years.

The Convention further observed that at that pint of the time that had openly "secrued to its aid the power of the Common Government."

By making a final case in favour of the secession, the convention placed on record that, "a sectional party has found within that Article establishing the Executive Department, the means of subverting the Constitution itself." Further, "A geographical line has been drawn across the Union…." The North States had united to elect a President of the United States, who had declared that "Government can not endure permanently half slave and half free." The South Carolina thus expressed her stand and policy before the new president took oath of the office. The Convention also observed that it was a design of North States to subvert the Constitution by extending voting rights to such person who were incapable of becoming citizens. They had planned to use their votes to "inaugurate a new policy hostile to South and destructive of its beliefs and safety."

The Convention feared that afte 4th day of March next, the Federal Government will have become their enemy. The Federal Government, it was feared, would work on sectional lines.

The Convention observed that from then onwards, "erroneous religious beliefs" would work behind every policy decision.

The South Carolina finally wrote, "We, therefore, the People of South Carolina, by our delegates in Convention assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for rectitude of our intentions, have solemnly declared that Union, heretofore, existing between this State and other States of North America is dissolved."

Thus the South Carolina separated herself from the rest of the Unites States of America by separating herself from the compact and the other North States. After separation, it accorded a status to itself in the following words.

"The State of South Carolina resumed her position among the nations of the world, as a separate and independent States; with full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce and to do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do." It was signed and adopted on December 24, 1860.

Summary Observations:

  • These are the eight major observations on the justifications and causes of secession by South Carolina on the basis of the Convention which begun on December 17, 1860 and held at Columbia and then Charleston.

  • There was violation of the Constitution by the Federal Government. The Federal Government had made encroachments on the reserved rights of the States.

  • The Convention emphasized that the very existence of the Union was on the working of the pure truth that had established them ( 13 colonies in 1776) as "as free and independent states on July 4, 1776. They attained that status on the working and exercise of the truth which the convention states as follows:
    "When a government becomes destructive of the ends for which it was established, it is the right of people to alter or abolish it and to institute a new government"
  • The Articles of Confederation and later the Constitution of United States of America had left the rights not specified in their body with the states and working of those rights could be carried out by the states with full freedom and independence.
  • The Constitution of United States of America which South Carolina accepted on May 23, 1788, was in nature a compact between the states. Under that compact, the residual powers were left with the States. The Federal Government under the constitution of United States America came up as a general agent and a general government for the Union and its constituting states.
  • The joining of any state in the union was in nature a compact. The working of the compact required that all parties honour their obligation and work for the working of the material part of the compact. Any breach by any one party release the other party from the obligation of honouring the terms of the compact and thereby release the other party to exercise its own judgement to determine the fact of failure with all its consequences. As and when it is established that the compact was breached, then South Carolina was free to determine its future course of after coming out of the compact from which it was released when other parties breached the compact.
  • South Carolina observed that the breach of the compact had taken place with respect o Article 4 of the Constitution of United States of America. The act of breaking the compact had been continuously carried out by 14 North States for last 25 years. The act of breach had been done by 14 non-slaveholding North States by attacking the domestic institutions of South States, by calling their institutions as sinful and failing to fulfill their obligation with respect to Article 4 of the Constitution of the United States of America.
  • The 14 non-slaveholding North States had also tried to raise insurrection in South States. The General Government had extended them her protection in their act of damage to South State and thus failed in aim for which it had been jointly raised. The aim of the General Government was "to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for common defence, promote general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty for ourselves and our posterity." On the contrary, the General Government had extended protection to North States in raising insurrection in South States.
  • Finally, the resolution observed that a sectional party had come up which had united the North States for damaging the domestic institution s of South states. They had drawn a geographical line between north and south states. They were guided by "erroneous religious beliefs." They wanted to extend the right of voting to such persons, who were incapable of becoming citizens and finally they had elected a President who asserted that "Government can not endure permanently half slaves and half free." From March 4, 18612, all the acts of General Government would be carried on sectional lines guided by erroneous religious beliefs.

Hence, South Carolina, which had already dissolved its compact with the constitution, also dissolved the union with other states.

References and Sources:

  1. For the text of resolutions of secession by various states on the eve of Civil War, refer to: University of Tennessee Sunsite as Copied by Justin Sanders from J.A. May & J.R. Faunt, *South Carolina Secedes* (U. of S. Car. Pr, 1960), pp. 76-81
  2. For the various ordinances in original refer to Documenting The American South

May 02, 2006

Digital History Hacks: Methodology for the Infinite Archive

Digital History Hacks: Methodology for the Infinite Archive

William J. Turkel has raised the same discussion of making the histories available in digital form thereby bringing the democratization of knowledge.

It is hoped that he is not suggesting a history as desired by people but as the work of historians for the prosterity.

The article was reached through Miland Brown reference to History Carnival 30, prepared by Jeremy Boggs at Clio Web.

The main argument is that the need is being felt that the more and more people reach the original sources and comments by the historians. The digital format of the knowledge accessed through inter connectivity of computers can bring about a more bigger revolution than what the printing of the books had shown us. In the field of history, this has been said again and again but the commentators, who mainly try to discuss one period, or one event, or one type of history, actually want to say that they want that all the versions should be immediately available. It is needed because, a history student has work with the words in reference to the sources from where those words have been borrowed. In order to give a true work of history, one requires an access to primary sources and also the versions of the fellow historians.

However, what is the big history concept? Is it possible to to write the history from the big bang to the present day in its complete form? Well it can be imagined but will it be a practicle activity. Secondly, is the methodology and the real definition are decided among a larger group of history students. The consciouness of past, the past as the source of your consciousness keep on telling you that there is a filed of knowledge which deals with change and continuity over space and time and that is the only surity of the existence and continuity of the subject "history". But as far the the interpertation and methodologies that are to be adopted, it is yet to be chalked out. However, with the digital sources available online, there can be a possibility of framing a real step by step methodology.

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